What is a surrogate mother and how does the process work?
Kim and Kanye have just announced the birth of their third baby via a surrogate.
Kim suffers from a condition called placenta accreta, which caqncause severe problems to mother and baby during and after pregnancy. This is why they decided it was safest to use a surrogate. It’s an extremely big decision, but one that’s been vital in helping people have babies who otherwise wouldn’t be able to.
Surrogacy is when someone carries a baby for another person or couple, giving the child to them once it’s born.
There are two different types of surrogacy:
Traditional surrogacy This method involves insemination of the surrogate mother by the sperm of the intended father.
The baby will technically be related to the surrogate, but an agreement will be made so that the intended father (and a partner, if he has one) will raise the child.
Sometimes a sperm donor may also be used in this instance, but the insemination will still happen in a traditional manner. If donor sperm is used, there can be issues around custody – since the baby won’t be biologically be related to either intended parent (but will be related to the surrogate). In that case, standard adoption procedures may need to take place.
在这种情况下，有时也可能使用捐精，但卵子授精仍然会以传统方式发生。如果使用捐精，可能会出现监护问题 - 因为婴儿在生物学上不会与代孕委托人有关（但会与代孕相关）。在这种情况下，可能需要采纳标准程序。
l This is different in that the insemination happens via IVF (in vitro fertilisation).
l There are a few different combinations of how this embryo is created:
l Intended parents’ sperm and egg
l Donor egg and intended father’s sperm
l Donor sperm and intended mother’s egg
l Donor sperm and egg
l Donor embryo (which may be donated by someone who’s gone through IVF and had one left over)
One of these sperm/egg combinations will be implanted into the surrogate mother, meaning the baby will not be related to the surrogate in any way.
There are plenty of reasons someone might choose to use a surrogate. They mainly tend to be due to safety concerns for the intended mother (like in Kim’s case), when a same-sex couple want to have a baby, or because of fertility issues with one of both intended parents.
Some people use a surrogacy agency to do this. They’ll be able to look through potential surrogates, and have the process managed by their agent.
The agency will also sort out any legal issues and potential financial transactions from the intended parents to the surrogate.
The laws around this practice differ greatly depending on the country or state you’re in. In Britain, for example, only altruistic surrogacy is legal – so no money is allowed to change hands.
Others will allow surrogate mothers to charge as much as they see fit for remuneration (commercial surrogacy), and some will only allow medical expenses to be paid.
However, in locations where using a surrogate mother is completely permitted, people might travel to somewhere that it is allowed. This is known as fertility tourism.
It has raised some moral and philosophical concerns, as certain people feel that the surrogate may become too attached to the baby before it’s born and not wish to give it to the intended parents.
This dilemma actually came up in November last year, but the surrogate was ordered by the courts to give the baby to the couple she’d made the agreement with.Other celebrities who have used surrogates include Tyra Banks, Jimmy Fallon, and Elton John.
这种困境实际上是在去年11月出现的，但法院下令代理人将婴儿交给她与之达成协议的代孕意向夫妇。 其他使用代理人（代孕公司）的名人包括Tyra Banks，Jimmy Fallon和Elton John。